1 January 2013

Nuclear pursuits: Non-P-5 nuclear-armed states, 2013

Timothy McDonnell

Tim McDonnell is a program associate with the Wilson Center’s History and Public Policy Program and its Nuclear Proliferation International History Project. He earned his masters in...


In this Nuclear Notebook, guest author Timothy McDonnell reviews the five states that developed nuclear weapons outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty—India, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan, and South Africa—and explores the milestones associated with each country’s weapons program. These states tend to have smaller, less technologically sophisticated nuclear arsenals, and have conducted fewer nuclear tests than the five nuclear powers—China, France, Great Britain, Russia, and the United States. But in some cases, the author writes, the line separating the technical differences between the two groups’ nuclear arsenals is starting to blur.