Hans M. Kristensen

Articles by Hans M. Kristensen

1 November 2014
Middle East
Nuclear notebook

Although the Israeli government neither confirms nor denies that it possesses nuclear weapons, it is generally accepted by friend and foe alike that Israel is a nuclear-armed state—and has been so for nearly half a century.

3 September 2014

Why NATO should eliminate its tactical nukes, despite Russian belligerence

Hans M. KristensenAdam Mount

US tactical nuclear bombs don't deter Putin and detract from more useful defense initiatives

1 September 2014
Nuclear notebook

As of mid-2014, the authors estimate that there are approximately 16,300 nuclear weapons located at some 98 sites in 14 countries. Roughly 10,000 of these weapons are in military arsenals; the remaining weapons are retired and awaiting dismantlement.

1 July 2014
Nuclear notebook

The nuclear-armed states have large residual nuclear arsenals, and post-Cold War reductions of nuclear weapons have slowed. Meanwhile, the nuclear nations have undertaken ambitious nuclear weapon modernization programs that threaten to prolong the nuclear era indefinitely.

1 May 2014
Nuclear notebook

The Obama administration has approved an upgrade to the B61 nuclear bomb that will, through use of a new tail kit assembly, become a guided standoff nuclear bomb.

1 March 2014
Nuclear notebook

Russia has taken important steps in modernizing its nuclear forces since early 2013, including the continued development and deployment of new intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), construction of ballistic missile submarines, and development of a new strategic bomber.

1 January 2014
Nuclear notebook

The United States has an estimated 4,650 nuclear warheads available for delivery by more than 800 ballistic missiles and aircraft. Approximately 2,700 retired but still intact warheads await dismantlement, for a total inventory of roughly 7,400 warheads.

1 November 2013
Nuclear notebook

The number of weapons in China’s nuclear arsenal is slowly growing, and the capability of those weapons is also increasing.

16 October 2013
Nuclear notebook

The authors calculate that some 125,000 nuclear warheads have been built since 1945, about 97 percent of them by the United States and the Soviet Union and Russia.

1 July 2013
Nuclear notebook

Recent research has revealed new facts about the British nuclear arsenal over a 25-year period starting in 1953. This accounting and the authors’ own research support an estimate that the British produced about 1,250 nuclear warheads between 1953 and 2013.