Scheffran is a senior research scientist in the Program in Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security at the University of Illinois. Previously, he served as a policy adviser to German parliamentarians, Germany's Federal Environmental Agency, and the United Nations. He also was a member of the German delegation at the 2002 climate negotiations in New Delhi. He is the cofounder of the International Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation and co-author of the Model Nuclear Weapons Convention. He will start a new position as professor in climate change and security at Hamburg University in August.