In a number of developing countries, energy demand and environmental awareness are both on the rise. This can create tensions among a number of stakeholders. Middle classes may develop new expectations about issues like air pollution and wilderness preservation; but their prosperity depends in part on energy projects that can carry an array of negative environmental consequences. Often it is the poor who suffer these consequences most directly, though the poor are the very people who have yet to benefit from economic development. Governments, meanwhile, though they are keen to encourage development, must also remain mindful of environmental attitudes among their citizens. How can fast-developing nations meet their energy needs and achieve their development goals while also satisfying higher environmental expectations?