“Nuclear modernization” is a euphemism covering a wide range of activities that constitute, in the view of many observers, a new and dangerous global nuclear arms race. And an expensive one. In the United States, the 30-year cost of the plethora of programs under the nuclear modernization umbrella—including new nuclear-capable bombers, land-based nuclear missiles, and nuclear submarines—has been estimated at $1.2 to $1.7 trillion. In this issue, leading experts on the US, Russian, and Chinese modernization programs argue for reasonable and practical ways to short-circuit or at least limit what is euphemized as “modernization” but actually constitutes a ritual squandering of national resources on weapons that can never reasonably be used.
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Rebuilding an aging nuclear weapons complex: What should the United States do, and not do? An overview
Invisible nuclear-armed submarines, or transparent oceans? Are ballistic missile submarines still the best deterrent for the United States?
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