Sanctions against North Korean nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programs are not working. Pyongyang continues to see qualitative improvements in its nuclear and missile capabilities, and UN reporting reveals that the sanctions regime itself is subject to “rampant violations.” Despite these failures, sanctions remain a valuable, and a central tool in facilitating North Korean denuclearization. Strengthening the coercive power of sanctions against North Korea requires three targeted improvements in implementation: preventing WMD sales, improving sanctions compliance, and stifling sanctions evasion.
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