Physicist Richard L. Garwin is IBM Fellow Emeritus at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York. He has contributed to the design of nuclear weapons, instruments, and electronics for research in nuclear and low-temperature physics, and superconducting devices. His work for the US government includes studies on antisubmarine warfare, military and civil aircraft, and satellite systems. In 1998, he served as a member of the nine-person Rumsfeld Commission to assess the ballistic missile threat to the United States. He received the Presidential National Medal of Science in 2003.