Maj. Gen. Vladimir Dvorkin (Strategic Rocket Forces, ret.) is main researcher at the Center for International Security at the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Institute of World Economy and International Relations. He was director of the Russian Ministry of Defense’s Research Institute No. 4, the think tank of the Strategic Rocket Forces, and was a main drafter of the nuclear weapons section of the Russian military doctrine. He is coauthor of Beyond Nuclear Deterrence: Transforming the U.S.-Russian Equation (2006). This article was completed with the help of Mikhail Tsypkin.