Energy Vault storage system at work in Castione, Switzerland. Image courtesy Energy Vault.

Long-duration energy storage for reliable renewable electricity: the realistic possibilities

By Jacqueline A. Dowling, Nathan S. Lewis, November 15, 2021

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Energy Vault storage system at work in Castione, Switzerland. Image courtesy Energy Vault.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank Tyler H. Ruggles and Katherine Z. Rinaldi for reviewing this piece. This work was supported by a fellowship from SoCalGas in support of Low Carbon Energy Science and Policy and a gift from Gates Ventures LLC to the Carnegie Institution for Science.

References

Dowling JA. 2020. Role of Long-Duration Energy Storage in Variable Renewable Electricity Systems. Joule. September 16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2020.07.007

Albertus, P., Manser, J. S., & Litzelman, S. (2020). Long-duration electricity storage applications, economics, and technologies. Joule, 4(1), 21-32.

Guerra OJ, Eichman J and Denholm P. 2021. Optimal energy storage portfolio for high and ultrahigh carbon-free and renewable power systems. Energy & Environmental Science. August 24. Available at: https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2021/ee/d1ee01835c

Jenkins JD and Sepulveda NA. 2021. Long-duration energy storage: A blueprint for research and innovation, Joule. Volume 5, Issue 9, p. 2241-2246, SEPTEMBER 8. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2021.08.002

Rinaldi KZ et al. 2021. Wind and Solar Resource Droughts in California Highlight the Benefits of Long-Term Storage and Integration with the Western Interconnect. Environmental Science & Technology, 55 (9), 6214-6226 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.0c07848

Ruggles TH, Dowling JA, Lewis NS, and Caldeira K. 2021. Opportunities for flexible electricity loads such as hydrogen production from curtailed generation. Advances in Applied Energy, 3, 100051.

Shaner MR. 2018. Geophysical constraints on the reliability of solar and wind power in the United States, Energy and Environmental Science. Issue 4. Available at: https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/ee/c7ee03029k

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